And third, breast milk contains other bioactive factors such as secretory IgA, which has been shown to alter colonization of the infant gut, protecting it against pathogenic bacteria [ 3637 ]. Pediatric Research volume 77, pages — Download Citation Subjects Intestinal diseases Abstract Newborns adjust to the extrauterine environment by developing intestinal immune homeostasis.
Sanderson, W. Since newborn intestinal microbiota is in a formative stage of development, modifications may have an important and timely impact on development of intestinal immune function.
Abstract Human milk is a complete source of nourishment for the infant. Bacterial diversity levels started more simply but rapidly increased to higher ultimate diversity levels in IF- and PDHM-fed samples compared to matched MBM-fed infant samples that exhibited a more measured initial increase in diversity.
At various stages of mucosal immune development, breast milk provides passive protective factors such as pIgA, antibacterial peptides defensinsand components of the innate immune response soluble TLR-2 and 4, CD14 and MD2.
No characteristic taxa were observed within PDHM-fed infants, suggesting a more heterogeneous response that largely overlaps with either IF or MBM groups Discussion We know that initial colonization of the newborn gut influences the development of intestinal host defense [ 2223 ] and appropriate development may have a profound effect on immune health during infancy and throughout life [ 24 ].
These observations strongly suggest that not only is appropriate colonization in general necessary in the newborn period, but specific organisms seen in breastfed infants 51 may also be necessary to achieve early tolerance to innocuous antigens and bacteria, thereby preventing the expression of allergy and autoimmune diseases later in life.
The initial colonization process has an important stimulating effect on the developing intestine, particularly mucosal host defense. Early samples cluster together regardless of nutritional exposures.
Human and animal studies suggest that microorganisms from the maternal gut can be taken up by an increasingly permeable intestine due to hormonal effects on enterocyte tight junctions in the later stages of pregnancy and into early lactation. This finding may indicate that breast milk protects against bowel immaturity associated with low birth weight, whereas in contrast, the community composition of infants fed IF can still be distinguished based on birth weight.
These children require the majority of health care resources available because they are at the highest risk of neonatal morbidities, many of which have a lasting influence on health throughout childhood and across the lifespan [ 1112 ]. We found that the intestinal microbiome composition of preterm infants differed over time depending on feeding with MBM, PDHM, or IF and that these differences are also influenced by gestational age at birth and postnatal age at the time of observation.
First, oligosaccharides present in breast milk provide an energy source to the intestinal microbiome, facilitating the growth of bacterial species, many of which are characterized as beneficial i. Evidence in human lactating mothers shows large quantities of circulating lymphoid cells with engulfed bacteria.
Garrote, I. Cecal samples from patients with IBD were compared with healthy controls, and relative abundances were assessed. These passive factors allow the newborn to protect itself from invading pathogens.
Accordingly, early colonization is necessary for appropriate development of mucosal immune defense, which in turn is required for prevention of immune-mediated diseases later in life.One of the benefits of breastfeeding derives from the influence of breast milk on the gut microbiota — the complex ecological community made up of the trillions of microbes that inhabit the gastro-intestinal tract.
This community of microbes is extremely diverse and dynamic — it varies between individuals and it fluctuates according to several factors, as for example age, diet and disease. · Conclusions. The preterm infant intestinal microbiome is influenced by postnatal time, birth weight, gestational age, and nutrition.
Feeding with breast milk appears to mask the influence of birth weight, suggesting a protective effect against gut immaturity in the preterm robadarocker.com by: Influence of breast milk vs. formula and genetics on gut microbiota composition could help prevent celiac disease Date: August 16, Source: American Society for Microbiology.
Babies that are solely breast-fed until weaning have a microbiota dominated by bifidobacteria, whilst those that are formula-fed tend to have a more diverse microbiota. Following the introduction of solid food to an infant diet, the microbiota changes and by the age of three the microbiota resembles a relatively stable, ‘healthy adult’-like composition .Cited by: · Human milk is a complete source of nourishment for the infant.
Exclusive breastfeeding not only sustains the infant’s development but also guides the proliferation of a protective intestinal robadarocker.com by: · The breast milk influence on initial intestinal microbiota also prevents expression of immune-mediated diseases (asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 Cited by: